History of The Salvation Army in the National Capital
The Salvation Army began work in Washington, D.C. in June 1885, five years after the organization officially arrived in America from its home base in London. From the beginning, the Army in Washington established programs that have fed the hungry, sheltered the homeless, and provided counseling and support to those most in need of help.
Neighborhood locations and the variety of services offered have developed as the city and its needs grew. The earliest locations were in the old downtown, on or close to Pennsylvania Avenue. The Army also opened a location in Alexandria, Virginia in 1885. In the early 20th century, work was opened in neighborhoods such as Shaw in Northwest Washington, and in Southeast, where the Army has been ever since. Expansion into other cities and counties in Maryland and Virginia occurred with the growth of Washington to a major metropolitan area.
Homelessness and substance abuse
Typical of early Salvation Army programs was the Industrial Home, opened in 1903, which addressed the problems of chronic homelessness and unemployment. Men learned trades while working for their lodging and meals. This program eventually became the Men's Social Service Center and later the Adult Rehabilitation Center. These programs, strengthened by the opening of the Harbor Light Treatment Center in 1951, became increasingly sophisticated, providing comprehensive services to those fighting the twin problems of homelessness and substance abuse.
Housing for women and children
Providing housing to women and children in need has been a long standing commitment of the Army in Washington for eighty years. In 1921, the Evangeline Residence was opened to provide low cost rooms and board to working, women. In the 1940's, the Emergency Home was opened to provide women with children a sanctuary while seeking permanent homes and jobs. This program has evolved into the Turning Point that will expand into a large and comprehensive transitional housing program with the opening of a new thirty unit apartment building in June 2000.
Centers for worship and service
Neighborhood Corps Centers for worship and service throughout the region have offered emergency support, food, and counseling, activities for every age group, and spiritual nourishment for 115 years. Renewing The Salvation Army's commitment to the Washington area, the Army opened its newest and largest center in Gaithersburg, Maryland in March 2000. More than ever, The Salvation Army is dedicated to helping those most in need in the National Capital area as we begin the new century.
History of The Salvation Army
William Booth embarked upon his ministerial career in 1852. His crusade was to win the lost multitudes of London to Christ. He went into the streets of London to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ to the poor, the homeless, the hungry and the destitute.
Booth abandoned the conventional concept of a church and a pulpit and took his message to the people. His fervor led to disagreement with the leaders of the church in London. They preferred traditional measures. As a result, he withdrew from the church and traveled throughout England conducting evangelistic meetings. His wife, Catherine, was a major force in The Salvation Army movement.
In 1865, William Booth was invited to hold a series of evangelistic meetings in the east end of London. He set up a tent in a Quaker graveyard and his services became an instant success. This proved to be the end of his wanderings as an independent traveling evangelist. His renown as a religious leader spread throughout London. His followers were a vigorous group dedicated to fight for the souls of men and women.
Thieves, prostitutes, gamblers and drunkards were among Booth's first converts to Christianity. His congregations were desperately poor. He preached hope and salvation. His aim was to lead them to Christ and to link them to a church for further spiritual guidance. Even though they were converted, churches did not accept Booth's followers because of what they had been. Booth gave their lives direction in a spiritual manner and put them to work to save others who were like themselves. They too preached and sang in the streets as a living testimony to the power of God.
In 1867, Booth had only 10 full-time workers. By 1874, the numbers had grown to 1,000 volunteers and 42 evangelists. They served under the name "The Christian Mission." Booth assumed the title of a General Superintendent. His followers called him "General." Known as the "Hallelujah Army,'" the converts spread out of the east end of London into neighboring areas and then to other cities.
Booth was reading a printer's proof of the 1878 Annual Report when the noticed the statement, '"The Christian Mission under the Superintendent's of the Rev. William Booth is a volunteer army. He crossed out the words "Volunteer Army'" and penned in "Salvation Army'" From those words came the basis of the foundation deed of The Salvation Army which was adopted in August of that same year.
Converts became soldiers of Christ and are known as Salvationists. They launched an offensive throughout the British Isles. In some instances there were real battles as organized gangs mocked and attacked soldiers as they went about their work. In spite of the violence and persecution, some 250,000 persons were converted under the ministry of the Salvationists between 1881 and 1885.
Meanwhile, the Army was gaining a foothold in the United States. Lieutenant Eliza Shirley had left England to join her parents who had migrated to America earlier in search of work. She held the first meeting of The Salvation Army in America in Philadelphia in 1879. The Salvationists were received enthusiastically. Shirley wrote to General Booth begging for reinforcements. None were available at first. Glowing reports of the work in Philadelphia convinced Booth to send an official group to pioneer the work in America in 1880.
On March 10, 1880, Commissioner George Scott Railton and seven women officers knelt on the dockside at Battery Park in New York City to give thanks for their safe arrival. This was to be their first official street meeting held in the United States. These pioneers were to be met with similar unfriendly actions, as was the case in Great Britain. They were ridiculed, arrested and attacked. Several officers and soldiers even gave their lives.
Three years later, Railton and the seven "Hallelujah Lassies"' had expanded their operation into California, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania.
President Grover Cleveland received a delegation of Salvation Army officers in 1886 and gave the organization a warm personal endorsement. This was the first recognition from the White House that was to be followed by similar receptions from succeeding presidents of the United States.
Termed as the "invasion of the United States," The Salvation Army movement expanded rapidly to Canada, Australia, France, Switzerland, India, South Africa, Iceland and Germany. Currently in the United States, there are more than 10,000 local neighborhood units, and The Salvation Army is active in virtually every corner of the world.